Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions Minimum Operating Temperature
RS Stock No. 146-2074
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ABU
MYR0.158
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0555
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ABU
MYR0.837
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 170-4162
Mfr. Part No.BC548C A1
MYR0.149
Each (On a Tape of 4000)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 796-9717
Mfr. Part No.BC548C A1
MYR0.534
Each (In a Pack of 250)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW Single 30 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm -
RS Stock No. 177-5495
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
MYR93.275
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -
RS Stock No. 103-2948
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
MYR0.092
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -
RS Stock No. 738-7571
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
MYR170.77
Each
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 793-0753
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
MYR0.171
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 170-3540
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
MYR0.079
Each (On a Reel of 10000)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm -
RS Stock No. 545-0343
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
MYR0.468
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 806-2775
Mfr. Part No.KSD880YTU
MYR2.825
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 3 A 60 V TO-220 Through Hole 30 W Single 60 V 60 V 1 MHz 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 14.2mm -
RS Stock No. 545-2210
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
MYR27.14
Each
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -65 °C
RS Stock No. 103-2964
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
MYR18.386
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0442
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
MYR0.752
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 805-1084
Mfr. Part No.2N4403TFR
MYR0.377
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single -40 V -5 V 200 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 739-0445
Mfr. Part No.2N4403TA
MYR0.851
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 40 V 5 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -55 °C
RS Stock No. 122-0087
Mfr. Part No.MJ15024G
MYR23.289
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 16 A 250 V TO-204 Through Hole 250 W Single 400 V 5 V 4 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm -
RS Stock No. 124-1317
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TA
MYR0.171
Each (On a Reel of 2000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 805-1043
Mfr. Part No.2N3904TAR
MYR0.206
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -
RS Stock No. 842-8015
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
MYR0.188
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm -