Voltage References

Voltage references are electronic devices that provide a fixed output voltage. They provide a constant voltage regardless of external factors. This includes the load on the device, temperature or fluctuations in the power supply. Learn more in our Complete Guide to Voltage References.

Voltage references have different characteristics depending on their purpose. Voltage references used in laboratory applications are designed to have extremely high precision and accuracy, whereas those used as regulators for computer power supplies are much cheaper but less precise.

There are many different kinds of voltage references, generally categorised by type, tolerance, rated voltage, reference voltage and rated current. The most common tolerances are ±2%, ±1% and ±0.5%, but voltage references are available even up to ±40%.

Voltage reference ICs come in a standard semiconductor package, such as PDIP, SO, SOIC and SOT-23. The pin count may also be combined with the package type, for example SO-8.

Types of voltage references

  • Two-terminal shunt voltage reference
  • Three-terminal series voltage reference
  • Band-gap voltage reference
  • Low noise voltage reference
  • Micropower voltage reference

What are voltage references used for?

Voltage references can be used for a variety of different precision measurement and control systems such as power supplies in personal computers and analogue-to-digital converters. They are also used in scientific applications and in medical equipment where voltage variations need to be tested regularly. Voltage references are also used in battery-powered devices.


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Description Price Nominal Voltage Package Type Reference Type Initial Accuracy Mounting Type Topology Maximum Output Current Maximum Input Voltage Minimum Output Voltage Maximum Output Voltage Pin Count Line Regulation Load Regulation Dimensions
RS Stock No. 166-3616
Mfr. Part No.LM431CCZ
MYR0.244
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±0.5 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 806-4695
Mfr. Part No.LM431CCZ
MYR1.197
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±0.5 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 166-3615
Mfr. Part No.LM431AIZ
MYR0.295
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 862-4922
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-1.2G
MYR2.19
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 806-4689
Mfr. Part No.LM431AIZ
MYR1.502
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 162-9967
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-1.2G
MYR1.235
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±1.0 % Through Hole Shunt - - - - 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 163-0424
Mfr. Part No.CAT102TDI-GT3
MYR2.521
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
- TSOT-23 Adjustable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - 20 V 20 V - 5 1 mV 8 mV 2.9 x 1.6 x 0.9mm
RS Stock No. 145-3194
Mfr. Part No.LM285D-1.2G
MYR3.15
Each (In a Tube of 98)
units
1.235V SOIC Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 101-8304
Mfr. Part No.LM385Z-1.2G
MYR1.138
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
1.235V TO-92 Fixed ±2.0 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - 1.205 V 1.26 V 3 - 20 mV 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 145-3195
Mfr. Part No.LM385BD-1.2G
MYR2.41
Each (In a Tube of 98)
units
1.235V SOIC Fixed ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 184-1482
Mfr. Part No.TLV431ASNT1G
MYR1.36
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
1.24V TSOP Precision, Programmable ±1 %, ±2 % Surface Mount Series/Shunt 20mA 16 V 1.24 V 16 V 5 - - 3.15 x 1.65 x 1mm
RS Stock No. 781-4386
Mfr. Part No.NCP431AISNT1G
MYR1.24
Each (On a Tape of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 3 - - 3.04 x 1.04 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 166-1973
Mfr. Part No.LM431SCCM3X
MYR0.317
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 805-1393
Mfr. Part No.LM385BD-2.5R2G
MYR2.346
Each (On a Tape of 20)
units
2.5V SOIC Fixed ±1.5 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 145-3275
Mfr. Part No.TL431CLPG
MYR0.45
Each (In a Bag of 2000)
units
2.5 - 36V TO-92 Adjustable ±2.2 % Through Hole Shunt 100mA 37 V 2.5 V 36 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 806-4043
Mfr. Part No.LM431SCCM32X
MYR0.54
Each (On a Tape of 100)
units
2.5 - 36V SOT-23 Adjustable ±0.5 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - 2.5 (Cathode) V 36 V 3 - - 2.92 x 1.3 x 0.93mm
RS Stock No. 171-8421
Mfr. Part No.NCV51460SN33T1G
MYR3.29
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
3.3V SOT-23 Fixed ±1% Surface Mount - 20mA 28 V 3.26 V 3.33 V 3 500 ppm/V 4000 ppm/mA 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 774-3486
Mfr. Part No.LM385BZ-2.5G
MYR3.222
Each (In a Pack of 5)
units
2.5V TO-92 Fixed ±1.5 % Through Hole Shunt 20mA - - 2.5 V 3 - - 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 805-1387
Mfr. Part No.LM385BD-2.5G
MYR2.41
Each (In a Pack of 25)
units
2.5V SOIC Fixed ±1.5 % Surface Mount Shunt - - - - 8 - - 5 x 4 x 1.5mm
RS Stock No. 805-6758
Mfr. Part No.TL431ACDG
MYR1.571
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
2.5 - 36V SOIC Programmable ±1.0 % Surface Mount Shunt 100mA - - 36 V 8 53 mV 25 mV 5 x 4 x 1.5mm