Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar Transistors are a solid state, three-pin devices made from three layers of silicon. A bipolar transistor is designed to amplify current, bipolar transistors can also function as a switch. There are two main types of transistor, PNP (positive negative positive) or NPN (negative positive-negative).

How a Bipolar transistor is made

Bipolar transistors are constructed by joining two signal diodes back to back creating two PN junctions connected in series, sharing a common P or N terminal. By nature, silicon does not normally conduct electricity well. However, when silicon is treated with certain chemicals or impurities we can make the material and electrons behave in a different way. This process is called doping. The doping process improves the semiconductors ability to conduct electricity.

How do bipolar transistors work?

Bipolar transistors have two possible functions, switching, and amplification. Due to the devices three layers of doped semiconductor material, supplying the transistor with a signal voltage enables the discrete component to act as an insulator or a conductor. This clever change provides the transistors with two basic functions, switching (digital) electronics or amplification (analog) electronics.

Transistors are available in panel, surface and through-hole mounting options in plastic package or metal can versions. All have three terminals or pins, the Base, the Collector, and the Emitter.

They are also available as;

  • Digital transistors - are made of a semiconductor material, usually silicon, which conducts the current (or electricity) with little resistance. They also tend to have at least three terminals for easy connection to an external circuit.
  • UJT transistors - constructed of a bar of lightly dope N type silicone with a small piece of heavily doped P type material attached to one side. Since the silicon bar is lightly dope it has very high resistance.

Applications of bipolar transistors?

Transistors are one of the most widely used discrete components in electronic designs and circuits. Transistors are used for the amplification of all types of electrical signals in circuits made up of individual components rather than ICs (integrated circuits).


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Description Price Transistor Type Maximum DC Collector Current Maximum Collector Emitter Voltage Package Type Mounting Type Maximum Power Dissipation Minimum DC Current Gain Transistor Configuration Maximum Collector Base Voltage Maximum Emitter Base Voltage Maximum Operating Frequency Pin Count Number of Elements per Chip Dimensions
RS Stock No. 146-2074
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ABU
Brandonsemi
MYR0.192
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 739-0555
Mfr. Part No.PN2222ABU
Brandonsemi
MYR1.00
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
NPN 1 A 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 75 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 796-9717
Mfr. Part No.BC548C A1
MYR0.854
Each (In a Pack of 250)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single 30 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm
RS Stock No. 170-4162
Mfr. Part No.BC548C A1
MYR0.158
Each (On a Tape of 4000)
units
NPN 100 mA 30 V TO-92 Through Hole 500 mW - Single 30 V 6 V - 3 1 5.1 x 4.1 x 4.7mm
RS Stock No. 738-7571
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
MYR178.58
Each
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW - Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm
RS Stock No. 793-0753
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
Brandonsemi
MYR0.302
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 177-5495
Mfr. Part No.2N2222ACSM
BrandSemelab
MYR122.28
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 800 mA 40 V LCC 1 Surface Mount 500 mW - Single 75 V 6 V 250 MHz 3 1 3.05 x 2.54 x 1.4mm
RS Stock No. 103-2948
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
Brandonsemi
MYR0.097
Each (On a Reel of 3000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 170-3540
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT3G
Brandonsemi
MYR0.083
Each (On a Reel of 10000)
units
NPN 900 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V dc 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 3.04 x 1.4 x 1.01mm
RS Stock No. 545-0343
Mfr. Part No.MMBT3904LT1G
Brandonsemi
MYR0.521
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V SOT-23 Surface Mount 300 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 300 MHz 3 1 0.94 x 2.9 x 1.3mm
RS Stock No. 806-2775
Mfr. Part No.KSD880YTU
Brandonsemi
MYR3.15
Each (In a Tube of 50)
units
NPN 3 A 60 V TO-220 Through Hole 30 W - Single 60 V 60 V 1 MHz 3 1 9.9 x 4.5 x 14.2mm
RS Stock No. 103-2964
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
Brandonsemi
MYR21.935
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204AA Through Hole 115 W - Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 2 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm
RS Stock No. 545-2210
Mfr. Part No.2N3055G
Brandonsemi
MYR29.82
Each
units
NPN 15 A 60 V TO-204 Through Hole 115 W - Single 100 V 7 V 2.5 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm
RS Stock No. 739-0445
Mfr. Part No.2N4403TA
Brandonsemi
MYR1.627
Each (In a Pack of 10)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 40 V 5 V - 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 122-0087
Mfr. Part No.MJ15024G
Brandonsemi
MYR26.838
Each (In a Tray of 100)
units
NPN 16 A 250 V TO-204 Through Hole 250 W - Single 400 V 5 V 4 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm
RS Stock No. 178-4685
Mfr. Part No.2N4403BU
Brandonsemi
MYR0.226
Each (In a Bag of 10000)
units
PNP -600 mA -40 V TO-92-3L Through Hole 625 mW - Single -40 V -5 V 200 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 843-1575
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
Brandonsemi
MYR0.889
Each (In a Pack of 50)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 805-1071
Mfr. Part No.2N4403BU
Brandonsemi
MYR0.622
Each (In a Pack of 200)
units
PNP 600 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single -40 V -5 V 200 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 842-8015
Mfr. Part No.2N3904BU
Brandonsemi
MYR0.214
Each (In a Bag of 1000)
units
NPN 200 mA 40 V TO-92 Through Hole 625 mW - Single 60 V 6 V 100 MHz 3 1 5.2 x 4.19 x 5.33mm
RS Stock No. 544-9646
Mfr. Part No.MJ15024G
Brandonsemi
MYR36.89
Each
units
NPN 16 A 250 V TO-204 Through Hole 250 W - Single 400 V 5 V 4 MHz 3 1 8.51 x 39.37 x 26.67mm